The MPKV has released number of
varieties of important crops of the region. These varieties are further
developed and tested rigorously at the testing/verification research
centers of the University as well as on the farmers' fields under
different agro-climatic conditions. Some of the varieties are very popular
and has increased the remarkable production in this State as well as in
the country. In addition to crop varieties, the University has developed
numerous techniques in all the fields of related agricultural
2.1 Research in the
faculty of Agriculture :
Research is one of the
important activities of the University. The research programme is
organised through 4 main research stations and 21 sub-stations located
throughout the jurisdiction of the University. There are 172 research
projects funded through ICAR, Govt. of India, State Govt. and other
funding agencies in the country and abroad.
The operational area of
the University is divided into five zones on the basis of agro-climatic
conditions. To strengthen the location specific research programmes, the
ICAR has sanctioned National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) for
these zones viz., i) Scarcity zone, ii) Plain zone iii) Sub-montane zone
iv) Ghat zone and v) Assured rainfall zone.
Highlights of research activities
I. Crop improvement programme
important cultivated crops in the jurisdiction of the University are
sorghum, pearl-millet (bajra), rice, pigeon pea (tur), groundnut and
cotton in kharif wheat, safflower, gram in rabi. The sugarcane, cotton,
grapes, citrus, banana, pomegranate, onion, chillies and vegetables are
the important commercial crops. Some of the important achievements are
listed below :
Sorghum and bajra are the important kharif
foodgrain crops. The University has recently released the variety of
sorghum "Phule Yashoda" (SPV-1359). It is recommended for a medium
to heavy soils and responds well to irrigation (1 to 2 irrigations). It
yields 25-30 q/ha. It was released in 1998 at State level and subsequently
released in 2000 at National level.
The sorghum variety Phule
Mauli (RSLG-262) released during 1999 is a drought resistant variety
recommended for light to medium soil and its yield under rainfed
conditions is 12-15 q/ha. Improved variety of sorghum APV-504
(Swati) released by the University in 1989 is recommended for rabi
The variety 'Shradha' of bajra released by the University
yields upto 25 q/ha. The improved agro-techniques for moisture
conservation in drought prone area has been developed for higher
productivity of bajra. The last 15 years yield data shows that, the yield
of bajra has increased from 250 kg/ha to 690 kg/ha due to adoption of
modern techniques of cultivation for this improved variety.
is another important crop wherein variety Indrayani, Pavana and Kundalika
have been released by the Agricultural Research Station, Vadgaon Maval and
Darna by Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Igatpuri of this
Hunis and Manjari composites are the high yielding
early and medium duration varieties of maize developed by the University.
These varieties are catching the area very fast in Kolhapur region of the
Wheat is one of the important crops in Maharashtra
cultivated over an area of 8 lakh hectares. The average yield is less than
1 mt/ha because 40 % area is under rainfed and late sown irrigated wheat
which is taken after harvest of sugarcane. The University has released NI
146, NI 917, N 59, NI 5643, N 5749 and N 8223 for rainfed wheat while for
irrigated wheat NI 5439 and NI 5643 are the improved high yielding
varieties recommended for cultivation. An emphasis is proposed to be given
on quality wheat Triticum durum which have export potential
ii) Pulse Crops
an important pulse crop cultivated in rabi season. The University has
developed improved varieties viz. Vikas (G-1), Vishwas (G-5), G-12, Vijay
and Vishal. The variety Vishwas yields 28-30 q/ha under irrigated
conditions, however, its yield is 10-11 q/ha under rainfed conditions. The
variety Vijay is a drought tolerant and yields 15-16 q/ha under rainfed
conditions. It was released in 1993. The variety Vishal with attractive
and bold grain is recommended for irrigated conditions which yields 30-35
q/ha. Under rainfed conditions its yield is 14-15 q/ha. It is released in
the year 1995.
The University has released Phule Moong (PM-2) in
the year 1989 which has bold grain with a yield of 10-12 q/ha. It is
recommended for kharif and summer season.
The Pulses Improvement
Project, MPKV, Rahuri has pre-released Phule G-95418 of gram, Phule Moong-
9339 of moong and ACPR-90040 of Rajmah in the year 2000 and hopefully will
come out as the released varieties during 2001.The variety of Urid TPU-4
was released in 1992 and its yields 11-12 q/ha.
iii) Oil Seed Crops
Groundnut and sunflower are the important oilseed crops grown
in kharif while safflower is cultivated in rabi especially in drought
prone areas of the State. Sunflower is taken all round the year on variety
of soils. The sesamum is cultivated on lighter type of soil in kharif
'Phule Pragati' (JL 24) a groundnut variety
developed by the University scientists has become a national variety
cultivated in the states of Gujrat, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
and Madhya Pradesh. It is early maturing and high yielding variety with
average yield of 15-20 q/ha. The groundnut variety B-95 (Koyna) suited for
export purpose (HPS) has been released by the University SS-56 a short
duration variety of sunflower, Phule Til No.1 and JLT 26 varieties of
sesamum are becoming increasingly popular in Jalgaon and Dhule regions. In
case of Safflower Tara, Girna, and Bhima varieties have occupied sizeable
area in Dhule, Jalgoan and Solapur regions respectively.
iv) Forage Crops
University has made useful contributions in the field of forage crops and
developed high yielding varieties viz. African Tall maize, Gaint bajra,
Ruchira sorghum, Yeshwant napier grass, and Sweta chavali which are became
popular among the cultivators.
v) Commercial Crops
Sugarcane is the important commercial crop which has brought prosperity
especially in the rural areas of the state. The varieties Co 419 and Co 740
have been released for cultivation in the year 1936 and 1956 respectively.
An early maturing variety Co 7219 (Sanjivani) was released in 1982, which
yields on an average 174 t/ha with sugar recovery of 11 % .
Similarly in 1982,
another midlate variety CoM 7125 (Sampada) was released for Suru and
Pre-seasonal planting. The midlate variety Co 7527 was released in 1988 for
suru. This was followed by release of the midlate variety. CoM 88121
(Krishna) / CoM 7714 for suru, pre-season and adsali planting during 1993.
Subsequently, in 1994, the early maturing variety Co 8014 (Mahalaxmi) for
suru followed by the midlate variety Co 86032 (Nira) for suru, pre-season
and adsali plantings were released during 1996. The early maturing and high
sugar variety Co 94012 was released for suru and pre-season planting in the
year 2004. Recently during 2007, the salt and drought, pest and disease
tolerant, midlate variety CoM 0265 (Phule 265) with high plant and ratoon
yield potential was released for suru, pre-season and adsali planting for
the Maharashtra State.
The research is
being undertaken on keeping quality of jaggery. The use of organic
clarificant viz. bhendi ( Abelmoschus esculantus) and covering bales
with black polythene has been recommended for proper storage of jaggery.
Technology for jaggery by product called kakvi (Syrup) which
has a lot of export potential has been standardized.
Cotton is an
important commercial crop of the State cultivated over 27 lakh hectares.
The important varieties for rainfed cotton viz., Y-1 and JLH-168 are
recommended for rainfed agriculture. The AICRP on cotton, MPKV, Rahuri has
recently released the hybrid of cotton named as "Phule-492" in the year
2000. This variety is resistant to parawilt giving 25 % higher yield over
Nanded NHH-44. It is suitable for irrigated conditions of Western
Maharashtra and also suitable for double cropping, since it is medium
duration variety. The fibre quality parameters fulfill the requirements of
modern textile mills.
Cultivation of horticulture crops has
become popular in the State of Maharashtra. It has brought prosperity
especially in drought prone areas. The University has made valuable
contribution in the field of dry land horticulture and popularised
improved varieties of ber viz. Umran, Kadaka, Sanur No.6, Gola, Illaichi
and Punjab Chuhhara and developed prunning technology for high yield of
better quality fruits. Due to continuous efforts of the University
scientists and extension workers, ber is cultivated over 30 thousand
hectares in Maharashtra.
|Mridula Pomegranate Variety
Pomegranate is another important fruit crop
cultivated over 21 thousand hectares. Ganesh, G-137, P-23 and P-26 are the
improved varieties released for cultivation. Recently 'Mruidula' variety
of pomegranate developed by selecting a segregant of F2 progeny of a cross
between Ganesh x Gul Shah Red a Russian variety has been released by the
An improved variety Kagzi lime 'Sai Sarbati' has been
released for cultivation in the jurisdiction of the University. The
variety is high yielding and disease resistant. The cultivation of 'Aonla'
gives good remunerative returns to the farmers. Hence the University has
initiated research on this crop at central campus, Rahuri. The varieties
like Krishna, NA-7-10, Chakiya are recommended for cultivation under
The department of Hoticulture has
developed Vaishali and Krishna varieties of brinjal, Godavari of garlic,
Agnirekha of chilli, Hirkani of bittergourd, Himangi of cucumber, Samrat
of bottlegourd, Dhanashri and Bhagyashri varieties and Rajashri hybrid of
tomato. They have been popular among the cultivators. Click here for details
The University has initiated research work
on floriculture crop and standardised the pulsing treatments for
gladiolus, roses, gerbera and carnation to improve the vase life of cut
flower and finalized packaging treatments for various types of flowers.
The Government of Maharashtra has sanctioned a research project on
"Hi-Tech floriculture" at Agriculture College, Pune during 2000. The Green
houses/Poly houses of different sizes have been errected for different
Eighty seven percent of the cultivated area in
Maharashtra is rainfed out of which 40 % is drought prone. The University
is proud to have one of the oldest Dry farming Research Station in the
country established at Solapur in the year 1933. As a result of research
work, the University has recommended many dry farming technologies which
are being widely adopted in rainfed areas of the State. The important
components of dry farming systems studied are use of the improved variety,
application of fertilizer, plant protection and life saving irrigation.
The useful findings of the dry farming research station are widely adopted
in National Watershed Development Programmes throuhgout the State which
helped in increasing the production by 50 to 100%.
III. Water Management
Only 16 % of the total cultivated area in the state is
irrigated. Harnessing all the water resources, the maximum area which can
be brought under irrigation would be to the extent of 30 %. Judicious
utilization of available irrigation resources would help in maximising
production and productivity of various cultivated crops. As a result of
research work carried out on various aspects on irrigation water
management the useful recommendations on field layouts, scheduling of
irrigation and hitech irrigation system viz. Sprinkler and Drip have been
advocated to the farmers. The University has done pioneering work on
pressurized system of irrigation. Drip irrigation has been popularised and
adopted over 35000 hectare in the State. This method helps in saving water
to the extent of 40 to 70 % and gives 15 to 20 % increased yield. There is
considerable saving in expenditure on land development and preparing
irrigation and field channels.
IV. Post Harvest Management of Fruits and
Due to large scale production of fruits and
vegetables the glut is created in the market and prices slump down during
flush season. The Department of Food Science Technology and the research
unit on Post Harvest Technology of horticultural crops has developed
suitable technologies for processing of different fruit crops to prepare
candy, juice, syrup,drying of fruits & vegetables etc. The Center of
Baking is established at the University for imparting training on bakery
products for self employment.
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
"Dhanwantari Udyan" with
more than 400 species of important medicinal and aromatic plants is
established at Rahuri. The work to evaluate performance and utility of
various species has been initiated. The most promising species are
Isabgul, asparagus, guggul, sena, davana, citronella, geranium, mint,
sandlewood, khus plants is being multiplied and tested under different
agro-ecological situations in the State. On the basis of the findings
suitable species will be recommended for cultivation in the State for
Substantial research work has been carried out on
bio-fertilizers like Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, blue green
algae, VA-mycorrizae (VAM) and phosphate solublising cultures. The
Bio-pesticides such as Nuclear Poly-Hedrosis Viruses (NPV) to control
Helicoverpa armigera are produced on commercial scale and supplied to
farmers/Govt. agencies under the name 'Hiliokill'. In case of
bio-fertilizers, recommendations and seed treatment with microbial
cultures in different crops have been supplied to the farmers which
resulted in increasing the crop yields by 10-15 %. Microbial cultures for
rapid decomposition of farm waste for compost making have been developed.
A research work has been initiated in tissue culture viz.
micro-propogation of elite material of banana, sugarcane, grape,
eucalyptus, carnation and gerbera.
VII. Animal Science
Phule Triveni : The breed has been
developed through crossing of Holstein Friesian Jersey and Gir. The cow
produces on an average 3000 litre to 3500 litre of milk per lactation with
average fat content of 4.0 %. It has a good adaptability and disease
Phule Unnati : This is a strain developed
through selective breeding of Osmanabadi goats. The colour of the breed is
entirely black and has good prolificacy ( average 70 % twinning), growth
(average weight at slaughter (20 kg) and wide adaptability.
Phule Sangam : An improved strain of Sangamneri sheep
developed through selective breeding of Deccani sheep. It has a better
growth rate (average weight at 6 months 19 kg) and good adaptability.
|Pedal Operated Sunflower
The University has designed
and developed a bullock drawn Jyoti multicrop planter, bullock drawn
sugarcane earthing up-cum-fertilizer applicator, pedal operated Phule
Sunflower thresher, power tiller drawn vertical conveyor reaper for paddy
and wheat harvesting, power tiller operated overhead sprayer for grapes
and pomegranate and power tiller operated multicrop planter. These
machinery and implements are becoming popular among the farmers.
machine to separate the arils of firm pomegranate fruits has been
developed by the Department of Agricultural Process Engineering. A
prototype of this machine has been fabricated and will be multiplied for
the farmers/enterprenuers. The machine can process 150 kg fruits per hour.
The arils can be used for extracting juice which can be used for the
preparation of beverages .
The Department of Irrigation and
Drainage Engineering through rigorous research on sprinkler and drip
irrigarion for variety of crops and worked out the water requirements. The
hydraulic aspects of these systems are determined. The studies on sub
surface drainage system on the farmers field are being carried out. The
solar photo voltaic pumping system associated with drip irrigation proved
to be a energy saving system. The groundwater pollution in Sugar factory
premises is found increasing every year. It is observed that more than 100
ha of cultivable area is polluted by one sugar factory where the effluents
are spread over lagoons.
Department of Soil and Water Conservation
Engineering has recommended rain water harvesting techniques with special
emphasis on soil and water conservation in dry farming areas to the
farmers. These techniques have been fully explored in the watershed
development programmes of the State.