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Horticulture Inforamtion
Varieties Developed


The MPKV has released number of varieties of important crops of the region. These varieties are further developed and tested rigorously at the testing/verification research centers of the University as well as on the farmers' fields under different agro-climatic conditions. Some of the varieties are very popular and has increased the remarkable production in this State as well as in the country. In addition to crop varieties, the University has developed numerous techniques in all the fields of related agricultural sciences.

2.1 Research in the faculty of Agriculture :
Research is one of the important activities of the University. The research programme is organised through 4 main research stations and 21 sub-stations located throughout the jurisdiction of the University. There are 172 research projects funded through ICAR, Govt. of India, State Govt. and other funding agencies in the country and abroad.

The operational area of the University is divided into five zones on the basis of agro-climatic conditions. To strengthen the location specific research programmes, the ICAR has sanctioned National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) for these zones viz., i) Scarcity zone, ii) Plain zone iii) Sub-montane zone iv) Ghat zone and v) Assured rainfall zone.

Highlights of research activities :

I. Crop improvement programme
The important cultivated crops in the jurisdiction of the University are sorghum, pearl-millet (bajra), rice, pigeon pea (tur), groundnut and cotton in kharif wheat, safflower, gram in rabi. The sugarcane, cotton, grapes, citrus, banana, pomegranate, onion, chillies and vegetables are the important commercial crops. Some of the important achievements are listed below :

i) Cereal crops
Sorghum and bajra are the important kharif foodgrain crops. The University has recently released the variety of sorghum "Phule Yashoda" (SPV-1359). It is recommended for a medium to heavy soils and responds well to irrigation (1 to 2 irrigations). It yields 25-30 q/ha. It was released in 1998 at State level and subsequently released in 2000 at National level.

The sorghum variety Phule Mauli (RSLG-262) released during 1999 is a drought resistant variety recommended for light to medium soil and its yield under rainfed conditions is 12-15 q/ha. Improved variety of sorghum APV-504 (Swati) released by the University in 1989 is recommended for rabi tracts.

The variety 'Shradha' of bajra released by the University yields upto 25 q/ha. The improved agro-techniques for moisture conservation in drought prone area has been developed for higher productivity of bajra. The last 15 years yield data shows that, the yield of bajra has increased from 250 kg/ha to 690 kg/ha due to adoption of modern techniques of cultivation for this improved variety.

Rice is another important crop wherein variety Indrayani, Pavana and Kundalika have been released by the Agricultural Research Station, Vadgaon Maval and Darna by Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Igatpuri of this University.

Hunis and Manjari composites are the high yielding early and medium duration varieties of maize developed by the University. These varieties are catching the area very fast in Kolhapur region of the State.

Wheat is one of the important crops in Maharashtra cultivated over an area of 8 lakh hectares. The average yield is less than 1 mt/ha because 40 % area is under rainfed and late sown irrigated wheat which is taken after harvest of sugarcane. The University has released NI 146, NI 917, N 59, NI 5643, N 5749 and N 8223 for rainfed wheat while for irrigated wheat NI 5439 and NI 5643 are the improved high yielding varieties recommended for cultivation. An emphasis is proposed to be given on quality wheat Triticum durum which have export potential

ii) Pulse Crops
Gram is an important pulse crop cultivated in rabi season. The University has developed improved varieties viz. Vikas (G-1), Vishwas (G-5), G-12, Vijay and Vishal. The variety Vishwas yields 28-30 q/ha under irrigated conditions, however, its yield is 10-11 q/ha under rainfed conditions. The variety Vijay is a drought tolerant and yields 15-16 q/ha under rainfed conditions. It was released in 1993. The variety Vishal with attractive and bold grain is recommended for irrigated conditions which yields 30-35 q/ha. Under rainfed conditions its yield is 14-15 q/ha. It is released in the year 1995.

The University has released Phule Moong (PM-2) in the year 1989 which has bold grain with a yield of 10-12 q/ha. It is recommended for kharif and summer season.

The Pulses Improvement Project, MPKV, Rahuri has pre-released Phule G-95418 of gram, Phule Moong- 9339 of moong and ACPR-90040 of Rajmah in the year 2000 and hopefully will come out as the released varieties during 2001.The variety of Urid TPU-4 was released in 1992 and its yields 11-12 q/ha.

iii) Oil Seed Crops
Groundnut and sunflower are the important oilseed crops grown in kharif while safflower is cultivated in rabi especially in drought prone areas of the State. Sunflower is taken all round the year on variety of soils. The sesamum is cultivated on lighter type of soil in kharif season.


'Phule Pragati' (JL 24) a groundnut variety developed by the University scientists has become a national variety cultivated in the states of Gujrat, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. It is early maturing and high yielding variety with average yield of 15-20 q/ha. The groundnut variety B-95 (Koyna) suited for export purpose (HPS) has been released by the University SS-56 a short duration variety of sunflower, Phule Til No.1 and JLT 26 varieties of sesamum are becoming increasingly popular in Jalgaon and Dhule regions. In case of Safflower Tara, Girna, and Bhima varieties have occupied sizeable area in Dhule, Jalgoan and Solapur regions respectively.

iv) Forage Crops
The University has made useful contributions in the field of forage crops and developed high yielding varieties viz. African Tall maize, Gaint bajra, Ruchira sorghum, Yeshwant napier grass, and Sweta chavali which are became popular among the cultivators.

v) Commercial Crops
            Sugarcane is the important commercial crop which has brought prosperity especially in the rural areas of the state. The varieties Co 419 and Co 740 have been released for cultivation in the year 1936 and 1956 respectively. An early maturing variety Co 7219 (Sanjivani) was released in 1982, which yields on an average 174 t/ha with sugar recovery of 11 % .

            Similarly in 1982, another midlate variety CoM 7125 (Sampada) was released for Suru and Pre-seasonal  planting. The midlate variety Co 7527 was released in 1988 for suru. This was followed by release of the midlate variety. CoM 88121 (Krishna) / CoM 7714 for suru, pre-season and adsali planting during 1993. Subsequently, in 1994, the early maturing  variety Co 8014 (Mahalaxmi) for suru followed by the midlate variety Co 86032 (Nira) for suru, pre-season and adsali plantings were released during 1996. The early maturing and high sugar variety Co 94012 was released for suru and pre-season planting in the year 2004. Recently during  2007, the salt and drought, pest and disease tolerant, midlate variety CoM 0265 (Phule 265) with high plant and ratoon yield potential was released for suru, pre-season and adsali planting for the Maharashtra State.

            The research is being undertaken on keeping quality of jaggery. The use of organic clarificant viz. bhendi ( Abelmoschus esculantus) and covering bales with black polythene has been recommended for proper storage of jaggery. Technology for jaggery by product called kakvi (Syrup) which has a lot of export potential has been standardized.

Cotton is an important commercial crop of the State cultivated over 27 lakh hectares. The important varieties for rainfed cotton viz., Y-1 and JLH-168 are recommended for rainfed agriculture. The AICRP on cotton, MPKV, Rahuri has recently released the hybrid of cotton named as "Phule-492" in the year 2000. This variety is resistant to parawilt giving 25 % higher yield over Nanded NHH-44. It is suitable for irrigated conditions of Western Maharashtra and also suitable for double cropping, since it is medium duration variety. The fibre quality parameters fulfill the requirements of modern textile mills.

vi) Arid Horticulture
Cultivation of horticulture crops has become popular in the State of Maharashtra. It has brought prosperity especially in drought prone areas. The University has made valuable contribution in the field of dry land horticulture and popularised improved varieties of ber viz. Umran, Kadaka, Sanur No.6, Gola, Illaichi and Punjab Chuhhara and developed prunning technology for high yield of better quality fruits. Due to continuous efforts of the University scientists and extension workers, ber is cultivated over 30 thousand hectares in Maharashtra.

Mridula Pomegranate Variety

Pomegranate is another important fruit crop cultivated over 21 thousand hectares. Ganesh, G-137, P-23 and P-26 are the improved varieties released for cultivation. Recently 'Mruidula' variety of pomegranate developed by selecting a segregant of F2 progeny of a cross between Ganesh x Gul Shah Red a Russian variety has been released by the University.

An improved variety Kagzi lime 'Sai Sarbati' has been released for cultivation in the jurisdiction of the University. The variety is high yielding and disease resistant. The cultivation of 'Aonla' gives good remunerative returns to the farmers. Hence the University has initiated research on this crop at central campus, Rahuri. The varieties like Krishna, NA-7-10, Chakiya are recommended for cultivation under limited irrigation.

vii) Vegetable Crops
The department of Hoticulture has developed Vaishali and Krishna varieties of brinjal, Godavari of garlic, Agnirekha of chilli, Hirkani of bittergourd, Himangi of cucumber, Samrat of bottlegourd, Dhanashri and Bhagyashri varieties and Rajashri hybrid of tomato. They have been popular among the cultivators. Click here for details ....

viii) Floriculture Crops

Hi-tech Floriculture
The University has initiated research work on floriculture crop and standardised the pulsing treatments for gladiolus, roses, gerbera and carnation to improve the vase life of cut flower and finalized packaging treatments for various types of flowers. The Government of Maharashtra has sanctioned a research project on "Hi-Tech floriculture" at Agriculture College, Pune during 2000. The Green houses/Poly houses of different sizes have been errected for different floriculture corps.

II. Dryland Farming
Eighty seven percent of the cultivated area in Maharashtra is rainfed out of which 40 % is drought prone. The University is proud to have one of the oldest Dry farming Research Station in the country established at Solapur in the year 1933. As a result of research work, the University has recommended many dry farming technologies which are being widely adopted in rainfed areas of the State. The important components of dry farming systems studied are use of the improved variety, application of fertilizer, plant protection and life saving irrigation. The useful findings of the dry farming research station are widely adopted in National Watershed Development Programmes throuhgout the State which helped in increasing the production by 50 to 100%.

III. Water Management
Only 16 % of the total cultivated area in the state is irrigated. Harnessing all the water resources, the maximum area which can be brought under irrigation would be to the extent of 30 %. Judicious utilization of available irrigation resources would help in maximising production and productivity of various cultivated crops. As a result of research work carried out on various aspects on irrigation water management the useful recommendations on field layouts, scheduling of irrigation and hitech irrigation system viz. Sprinkler and Drip have been advocated to the farmers. The University has done pioneering work on pressurized system of irrigation. Drip irrigation has been popularised and adopted over 35000 hectare in the State. This method helps in saving water to the extent of 40 to 70 % and gives 15 to 20 % increased yield. There is considerable saving in expenditure on land development and preparing irrigation and field channels.

IV. Post Harvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables
Due to large scale production of fruits and vegetables the glut is created in the market and prices slump down during flush season. The Department of Food Science Technology and the research unit on Post Harvest Technology of horticultural crops has developed suitable technologies for processing of different fruit crops to prepare candy, juice, syrup,drying of fruits & vegetables etc. The Center of Baking is established at the University for imparting training on bakery products for self employment.

V. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
"Dhanwantari Udyan" with more than 400 species of important medicinal and aromatic plants is established at Rahuri. The work to evaluate performance and utility of various species has been initiated. The most promising species are Isabgul, asparagus, guggul, sena, davana, citronella, geranium, mint, sandlewood, khus plants is being multiplied and tested under different agro-ecological situations in the State. On the basis of the findings suitable species will be recommended for cultivation in the State for exploitation.

VI. Biochemistry
Substantial research work has been carried out on bio-fertilizers like Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, blue green algae, VA-mycorrizae (VAM) and phosphate solublising cultures. The Bio-pesticides such as Nuclear Poly-Hedrosis Viruses (NPV) to control Helicoverpa armigera are produced on commercial scale and supplied to farmers/Govt. agencies under the name 'Hiliokill'. In case of bio-fertilizers, recommendations and seed treatment with microbial cultures in different crops have been supplied to the farmers which resulted in increasing the crop yields by 10-15 %. Microbial cultures for rapid decomposition of farm waste for compost making have been developed. A research work has been initiated in tissue culture viz. micro-propogation of elite material of banana, sugarcane, grape, eucalyptus, carnation and gerbera.

VII. Animal Science
Phule Triveni
Phule Triveni : The breed has been developed through crossing of Holstein Friesian Jersey and Gir. The cow produces on an average 3000 litre to 3500 litre of milk per lactation with average fat content of 4.0 %. It has a good adaptability and disease resistance.

Phule Unnati : This is a strain developed through selective breeding of Osmanabadi goats. The colour of the breed is entirely black and has good prolificacy ( average 70 % twinning), growth (average weight at slaughter (20 kg) and wide adaptability.

Phule Sangam : An improved strain of Sangamneri sheep developed through selective breeding of Deccani sheep. It has a better growth rate (average weight at 6 months 19 kg) and good adaptability.

Pedal Operated Sunflower Thresher
VIII. Agricultural Engineering
The University has designed and developed a bullock drawn Jyoti multicrop planter, bullock drawn sugarcane earthing up-cum-fertilizer applicator, pedal operated Phule Sunflower thresher, power tiller drawn vertical conveyor reaper for paddy and wheat harvesting, power tiller operated overhead sprayer for grapes and pomegranate and power tiller operated multicrop planter. These machinery and implements are becoming popular among the farmers.

A machine to separate the arils of firm pomegranate fruits has been developed by the Department of Agricultural Process Engineering. A prototype of this machine has been fabricated and will be multiplied for the farmers/enterprenuers. The machine can process 150 kg fruits per hour. The arils can be used for extracting juice which can be used for the preparation of beverages .

The Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering through rigorous research on sprinkler and drip irrigarion for variety of crops and worked out the water requirements. The hydraulic aspects of these systems are determined. The studies on sub surface drainage system on the farmers field are being carried out. The solar photo voltaic pumping system associated with drip irrigation proved to be a energy saving system. The groundwater pollution in Sugar factory premises is found increasing every year. It is observed that more than 100 ha of cultivable area is polluted by one sugar factory where the effluents are spread over lagoons.

Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering has recommended rain water harvesting techniques with special emphasis on soil and water conservation in dry farming areas to the farmers. These techniques have been fully explored in the watershed development programmes of the State.

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Varieties Developed by the University

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